How to change drive letters in Windows

Click on Start and then Control Panel.
(Type computer management in the search box after clicking Start. Choose Computer Management.
   2   Click on the Administrative Tools link.
   In the Administrative Tools window, open the Computer Management program.
In the Computer Management window, locate the Disk Management option on the left and left-click on it.
If the Disk Management option is not visible, look under the Storage option by clicking the small arrow next to the word Storage.
On the right-hand side of the screen, locate and right-click on the drive that you wish to change the drive letter of and choose Change Drive Letter and Paths….
In the Change Drive Letter and Paths window, click on the Change… button.
The Change Drive Letter or Path dialog box will appear. Choose the drive letter you wish to assign to this partition.
Click OK.


Data Execution Prevention (DEP) explained

Can be found at Control Panel > System > Performance > Data Execution Prevention

Data Execution Prevention (DEP) is a security feature included in modernMicrosoft Windowsoperating systems that is intended to prevent anapplication or service from executing code from a non-executable memory region.

This helps prevent certain exploits that store code via abuffer overflow, for example. DEP runs in two modes: hardware-enforced DEP forCPUs that can mark memory pages as nonexecutable, and software-enforced DEP with a limited prevention for CPUs that do not have hardware support.

Software-enforced DEP does not protect from execution of code in data pages, but instead from another type of attack (SEH overwrite).

DEP was introduced inWindows XP Service Pack 2 and is included in Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005,Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 and later,Windows Vista, andWindows Server 2008.

Hardware-enforced DEP enables theNX bit on compatible CPUs, through the automatic use ofPAEkernel in 32-bit Windows and the native support on 64-bit kernels.Windows Vista DEP works by marking certain parts of memory as being intended to hold only data, which the NX or XD bit enabled processor then understands as non-executable.[1]

This helps preventbuffer overflow attacks from succeeding. In Windows Vista, the DEP status for a process, that is, whether DEP is enabled or disabled for a particular process can be viewed on the Processes tab in theWindows Task Manager.

In some instances, Data Execution Prevention can have theunintended consequence of preventing legitimate software from executing. In these cases, the affected software needs to be flagged as being allowed to execute code in those parts of memory, but this itself leads to a possible attack if the application isn’t rigorous in validating data that is passed into a region of memory that is marked as being executable.

If thex86 processor supports this feature in hardware, then the NX features are turned on automatically in Windows by default. If the feature is not supported by the x86 processor, then no protection is given. Outside of thex86 architecture, a version of NX also exists for Intel’sIA-64 architecture that is supported by Windows.
Software enforcement

Software DEP, while unrelated to the NX bit, is what Microsoft calls their enforcement of “Safe Structured Exception Handling”. Software DEP/SafeSEH simply checks when an exception is thrown to make sure that the exception is registered in a function table for the application, and requires the program to be built with it. However, even though it creates an impression that software DEP is related to the prevention of executing code in data pages, it is a different form of protection.


Unlike similar protection schemes available on other operating systems, DEP provides noaddress space layout randomization (ASLR, a feature nowavailable in Windows Vista), which may allowreturn-to-libc attacks that could feasibly be used todisable DEP during an attack. The possibility has now been demonstrated against Windows Hardware-enforced DEP by authors “skape & Skywing” in the following Uninformed article[1] which relies on a return-to-libc style attack. This technique relies on directly pointing the EIP register to the known service-pack-dependent location which applies the OptIn/OptOut mechanism. It is reliant on the boot-time option of OptOut/OptIn being available. If all pages are strictly enforced, then this attack will not succeed. ThePaX documentation furtherelaborates on why ASLR is necessary.


DEP is occasionally the cause of software problems, usually with older software. However, it also fixes problems with some applications, like the Age of Mythology game.[dubious–discuss]

Users have experienced problems using various command line commands that are a part of Microsoft’s Services for Unix, which is included as part of Vista as well asWindows Server 2003 R2.

In most cases, these problems may be solved by disabling the DEP features. DEP can be turned off on a per-application basis, or turned off entirely for all non-essential Windows programs and services.[2] Microsoft recommends that DEP not be globally disabled where an application crashes due to a DEP error. Instead, the author or vendor of the offending software should firstly be contacted for an updated version that does not violate DEP, or failing that, that DEP be disabled on an exception basis for the offending application only.[3]

The “COM surrogate has stopped working” error that is sometimes received in Windows Vista while viewing media folders can be corrected by turning off DEP for the dllhost.exe. This error surfaces in Windows Vista because manythird party video and audiocodecs are not DEP-compliant. This problem may also generally be resolved by updating any installed codecs to their latest versions.

DEP problems can occasionally occur with DEP-compliant core operating system components such asWindows Explorer,Internet Explorer andWindows Installer as they support in-processthird party extensions or plugins that may not be DEP-compliant.[4]


DEP controls in Windows Vista

DEP configuration for the system is controlled through switches in the Boot.ini file,[1] while opt-in or opt-out settings can be configured by using the System dialog box inControl Panel.[1]

The Boot.ini file settings are as follows: /noexecute= policy_level Note policy_level is defined as AlwaysOn, AlwaysOff, OptIn, or OptOut.OptIn: This setting is the default configuration for Windows XP. On systems with processors that can implement hardware-enforced DEP, DEP is enabled by default for limited system binaries and programs that “opt-in.” With this option, only Windows system binaries are covered by DEP by default and cannot be disabled without changing the policy to “AlwaysOff”.OptOut: This setting is the default configuration for Windows 2003 SP1. DEP is enabled by default for all processes.

A list of specific programs that should not have DEP applied can be entered using the System dialog box in Control Panel. Network administrators can use the Application Compatibility Toolkit to “opt-out” one or more programs from DEP protection. System compatibility fixes, or shims, for DEP do take effect. Also note that Windows silently disables DEP for certain executables, such as those packaged with ASPack.AlwaysOn: This setting provides full DEP coverage for the whole system. All processes always run with DEP applied. The exceptions list to exempt specific programs from DEP protection is not available. System compatibility fixes for DEP do not take effect. Programs that have been opted-out by using the Application Compatibility Toolkit run with DEP applied.AlwaysOff: This setting does not provide any DEP coverage for any part of the system, regardless of hardware DEP support.

Virtual PC – Joining a new domain

If you have problems signing onto the ourcheshire domain, follow these steps and you should be able to sign into your VPC (Virtual PC) using the ourcheshire domain.

Log-in to the PC workstation as local administrator. If you cannot logon as local administrator, try to unplug the network cable and logon to the computer by using a domain administrator user that used to logon on the PC before, by using cached logon credentials feature.Go to Control Panel, then click on System icon, then go to Computer Name tab.Unjoin the computer from the domain by clicking on “Change”.

You should see that Domain button is now selected. Remember your domain name in the text box. Select (Click) on “Workgroup” to remove the computer from the domain, and put any workgroup name in the text box (e.g. workgroup).Click OK to exit.Restart the computer (optional)Go back to the Control Panel, launch System properties and then go to Computer Name tab, and click on “Change”.

Rejoin the domain by uncheck the Workgroup button and select (check) Domain button, and put in the domain name noted above into the text box.Click OK to exit.Reboot the PC.