The root cause of this error is that the Features table in the content database has an entry with the given GUID, but the Objects table in the Config database does NOT have a corresponding object with that ID.
This gets caused by the following scenario: a solution with a feature gets deployed and activated to a site. The solution gets retracted without first deactivating the feature at the site level. So, the site has an orphaned entry.
You can resolve this by running the stsadm -o deactivatefeature -id [guid from log] -url [each site it was activated on] -force.